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Section 11: RICA Annotated Bibliography

The purpose of this bibliography is to help candidates identify resources that may be useful for enhancing their knowledge of the content covered on the RICA as they prepare for the assessment. For each reference cited, the bibliography provides a brief summary of the types of information covered. The bibliography is not intended to offer a comprehensive listing of all potentially useful resources for preparing for the RICA, nor is it intended to be a substitute for coursework and other types of teacher preparation. Please note that candidates are not expected to familiarize themselves with all of the materials in the bibliography and that successful performance on the RICA will not require familiarity with any of the specific materials listed below.

NOTE: Resources have been organized by domain according to their primary area(s) of emphasis.

Resources That Address Multiple RICA Domains

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2008). Developing Reading and Writing in Second Language Learners: Lessons from the Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. NY: Routledge, Center for Applied Linguistics, and the International Reading Association, Inc.

This book presents the findings of the U.S. National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, explaining the results of empirical research on the literacy development of language-minority students.

Beers, G. K., & Samuels, B. G. (Eds.). (1998). Into Focus: Understanding and Creating Middle School Readers. Needham, MA: Christopher-Gordon.

This book focuses on ways to create or sustain an enjoyment and appreciation of reading in all middle school students. The contributors suggest classroom strategies for motivating students to read, promoting comprehension and response, and teaching vocabulary and decoding skills.

Biemiller, A., & Menyuk, P. (1999). Language and Reading Success. From Reading Research to Practice, Vol. 5, Series Ed. Jeanne S. Chall. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

This resource reviews research on language development and presents research-based practices for home and classroom use.

Birsh, J. R. (Ed.). (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

This practical resource offers strategies for multisensory instruction in language skills, including phonological awareness, alphabetic skills, spelling and grammar, reading accuracy and fluency, reading comprehension, handwriting and composition, and study skills. Includes field-tested instructional materials and activities.

Brody, S. (2001). Teaching Reading: Language, Letters & Thought (2nd ed.). Milford, NH: LARC Publishing.

This text presents an update of the first edition, which articulated the basic components of reading, specifying effective elements of reading instruction, whatever the approach, in favor of materials available. This edition includes the recent findings of the National Reading Panel's analysis of hundreds of methodologically sound research studies drawn from across the field of reading.

California Department of Education. (2001). Taking Center Stage: A Commitment to Standards-Based Education for California's Middle Grades Students. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.

This publication contains helpful information for school personnel about what they need to know and do to make standards-based education a success. It examines school culture, classroom organization, differentiated instruction, accelerated learning opportunities, an emotionally and physically safe school environment, and specific knowledge and skills teachers and principals need to work effectively in a standards-based middle school.

California Department of Education. (2007). Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: Author.

This comprehensive framework provides content standards and instructional practices in the language arts for students from kindergarten through grade 12. It includes curricular and instructional profiles and information on objective design, delivery, assessment, Universal Access, and materials.

California State Board of Education. (1999). Learning to Read (Rev. ed.) and Read All About It! Readings to Inform the Profession. Sacramento, CA: Author and Sacramento County Office of Education.

These two works provide a comprehensive set of research articles on reading instruction and a set of professional development modules reflecting the content of the California Reading Initiative.

Carnine, D., Jungjohann, K., Kame'enui, E., Silbert, J., & Tarver, S. (2006). Teaching Struggling and At-Risk Readers: A Direct Instruction Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book provides detailed descriptions of how to teach reading skills explicitly and systematically to address the needs of struggling and at-risk readers. It addresses multiple components of reading instruction with particular emphasis on instruction in decoding.

Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kame'enui, E., & Tarver, S. (2006). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book emphasizes the importance of direct, explicit instruction in reading and includes sections on beginning reading, decoding, and comprehension. Each section covers specific skills, discusses how to teach them, relates research findings, and provides sample applied exercises.

Curtis, M. E., & Longo, A. M. (1999). When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work. From Reading Research to Practice, Vol. 1, Series Ed. Jeanne S. Chall. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

This book explores causes and consequences of reading problems in adolescents and suggests methods for promoting word identification skills, vocabulary, comprehension, and study skills. Offers strategies for evaluating progress and managing classrooms.

Durán, E., Shefelbine, J., Carnine, L., Maldonado-Colón, E., & Gunn, B. (2003). Systematic Instruction in Reading for Spanish-Speaking Students. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas.

This resource focuses on literacy instruction for Spanish-speaking students in kindergarten through the third grade, providing an introduction to the direct instruction method and addressing the following specific areas of language and literacy development: oral language, academic language, decoding, skills transfer from Spanish to English, and reading comprehension skills.

Farstrup, A. E., & Samuels, S. J. (Eds.). (2002). What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction (3rd ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This collection of articles focuses on a variety of topics, including the role of reading research, theoretical perspectives on reading instruction, instruction in early reading, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, teaching diverse populations, and issues related to technology, grade-level standards and text difficulty, and high-stakes testing.

Fisher, D., Flood, D., & Flood, J. (Eds.). Sound Practices in Teaching Reading: The National Reading Panel Recommendations Come Alive in the Classroom. Costa Mesa, CA: California Reading Association.

This book is a compilation of articles previously published in the California Reader, which addresses issues raised in the National Panel Report. They are organized into these categories: alphabetics, fluency, comprehension, and technology.

Honig, B., Diamond, L., Gutlohn, L., & Mahler, J. (2008). Teaching Reading Sourcebook (2nd ed.). Core Literacy Training Series. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications.

This book includes sections focused on reading assessment, emergent literacy, decoding and word analysis, sight-word reading, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and vocabulary development.

Johns, J. L., & Lenski Davis, S. (1999). Improving Reading: A Handbook of Strategies. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

This practical, well-organized resource book describes ideas and strategies for responding to a variety of reading problems that students might have. Emphasizes attitude, emergent literacy, oral reading, word recognition, comprehension, studying and test taking, and parent involvement.

Learning Disabilities/Learning Abilities: A Video Series Dedicated to the Idea That All Children Can Learn. Produced by Vineyard Video Productions. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

This series of video recordings provides the latest methods for teaching students with learning disabilities. Recorded in various public, private, and parochial schools across the country, these recordings present proven teaching strategies and show how they work in the classrooms.

McCardle, P., & Chhabra, V. (Eds.). (2004). The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.

This comprehensive book outlines the importance of and clarifies the processes of scientific research related to reading and reading instruction. Contributing authors revisit the findings of the National Reading Panel, while introducing additional findings on phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Other sections of the book deal with issues such as professional development, student motivation, and interventions for struggling readers.

Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching Reading IS Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do. Item #372. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.

This booklet describes the difficulties of teaching reading and addresses the need for improved teacher preparation and professional development in reading. It explores the foundations of reading and reading development and practical skills of instruction in a comprehensive reading program.

Moats, L. C. (2001). "When Older Kids Can't Read." Educational Leadership, March 2001. ASCD.

This article describes factors that contribute to reading failure among older students, emphasizing that reading failure begins early and, if not addressed, affects students for life. The author describes research-based strategies and interventions that have proven effective in both preventing reading difficulties in the early years and addressing older struggling readers' deficits in critical reading skills.

National Literacy Panel. (2006). Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This resource presents the findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, a synthesis of research on the literacy and literacy education of language-minority students.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read. Author.

This resource presents the findings of the National Reading Panel's review of scientific-based reading research on the essential components of effective reading instruction. Among other findings, it emphasizes the importance of explicit instruction in five key areas (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension).

National Research Council. (1999). Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

This work highlights key aspects of language and literacy development from birth through grade three. Provides information on activities and practices for promoting reading success and on reading difficulties and how to prevent them.

Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2008). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K–12 Teachers (5th ed.). NY: Addison-Wesley Longman.

This volume provides information to help teachers understand how language and culture influence English Learners' school experiences. Topics include second-language acquisition theories and practices, sheltered instruction, emergent literacy, thematic instruction, assessment, and content-area reading and writing.

Rasinski, T. (2003). The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension. NY: Scholastic Professional Books.

This book provides a research-based overview of reading fluency and instruction and offers teachers a practical guide for implementing research-based instruction and activities to promote students' fluency development.

Snow, C., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

This comprehensive book discusses processes involved in learning to read and examines predictors of success and failure in reading. It provides instructional and organizational strategies for fostering literacy from birth through the primary grades and makes recommendations for practice and research.

Snow, C., Griffin, P., & Burns, M. S. (Eds.). (2005). Knowledge to Support the Teaching of Reading: Preparing Teachers for a Changing World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This resource presents recommendations from the National Academy of Education's Committee on Teacher Education concerning what teachers should know about language and literacy development and instruction in order to teach literacy effectively.

Wren, S. (2000, 2001). The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

This graphical framework with supporting text was designed to help K–2 teachers develop a strong conceptual understanding of reading acquisition in order to support their development of effective, research-based, child-centered instructional strategies in reading.

Domain 1: Planning, Organizing, and Managing Reading Instruction Based on Ongoing Assessment

Borich, G. (2006). Effective Teaching Methods: Research Based Practice. (6th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book presents a practical guide to teaching methods and practices, including direct instruction, student assessment, and planning units and lessons. It also describes professional development activities for new teachers.

Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2003). Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks of Reading Instruction (2nd ed.). Author.

This resource includes a discussion of the findings of the National Reading Panel (2000) and how to apply these findings in the classroom, focusing on the five areas of reading instruction identified by the panel: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension.

Clark, D. B., & Uhry, J. K. (1995). Dyslexia: Theory & Practice of Remedial Instruction. Timonium, MD: York Press.

This book describes various methods of instruction for students who have dyslexia and the potential value of each approach. Drs. Clark and Uhry provide a background for these decisions and then discuss each method thoughtfully.

Coyne, M., Kame'enui, E., & Carnine, D. (2006). Effective Teaching Strategies That Accommodate Diverse Learners (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book provides information about effective instruction and appropriate curricula for addressing the needs of diverse learners in the classroom.

Duran, E., Ostertag, B., & Brown, L. (2006). Teaching English Learners in Inclusive Classrooms (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas.

This text includes information on how classroom teachers can develop the literacy skills of students in their classes who are English Learners. The text also addresses the needs of English Learners who have special needs.

Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (2006). Sheltered Content Instruction: Teaching English Learners with Diverse Abilities (3rd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

This resource provides an introduction to sheltered instruction and describes specific strategies for implementing this approach in the elementary or secondary classroom, including strategies for differentiating instruction for English Learners with diverse abilities.

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). "Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, Why, and How Valid Is It." Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), pp. 93–99. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This article reviews important features of Response to Intervention (RTI) and examines the use of RTI in place of IQ-achievement discrepancy, as well as identifying areas of research needed to determine whether RTI is a valid measure for identifying a learning disability.

Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. (2006). "RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking Special Education for Students with Reading Difficulties (Yet Again)." Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), pp. 99–108. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This article reviews aspects of Response to Intervention (RTI) that are relevant to reading instruction, focusing in particular on the role of RTI in early intervention.

Kame'enui, E., & Simmons, D. (1990). Designing Instructional Strategies: The Prevention of Academic Learning Problems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book presents the principles of direct instruction, including practical information for planning and conducting lessons using this approach.

Shaywitz, S. (2005). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. NY: Vintage.

This book presents research in neuroscience that informs an understanding of dyslexia as a weakness in the language system at the phonological level, and explains a training program designed to help dyslexic readers develop phonemic awareness and learn to read skillfully.

Simmons, D., & Kame'enui, E. (Eds.). (1998). What Reading Research Tells Us About Children with Diverse Learning Needs: Bases and Basics. Special Education and Disability Series. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

This resource provides a synthesis of research on causes of reading failure and focuses on curricular and instructional guidelines for improving children's reading performance.

Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Off Track: When Poor Readers Become "Learning Disabled." Renewing American Schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

This resource addresses the dangers of labeling poor readers as "learning disabled" and shows how reading disability relates to normal reading acquisition. It describes five types of reading disabilities and suggests methods for assessing and correcting them.

Temple, C., Ogle, D., Crawford, A., & Freppon, P. (2005). All Children Read: Teaching for Literacy in Today's Diverse Classrooms (CA Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This book provides an overview of best practices for teaching reading and writing to all students at the emergent reading level, including struggling readers and English Learners.

Torgesen, J. K. (1998). "Catch Them Before They Fall." American Educator, Spring/Summer 1998, pp. 32–39. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.

This article explains the importance of early identification and prevention of reading problems, discusses areas of difficulty (phonemic awareness, word reading) that are common among students with reading problems, and defines elements important to a program for preventing reading failure and methods for identifying children at risk for reading failure.

Tuley, A. C. (1998). Never Too Late to Read: Language Skills for the Adolescent with Dyslexia. Timonium, MD: York Press.

This resource provides practical tools for helping students with dyslexia develop language skills, including guidelines for using a multisensory approach and techniques for improving students' study skills.

Domain 2: Word Analysis

Adams, M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

This practical guide describes the nature and importance of phonemic awareness, how to assess phonemic awareness, and effective activities for promoting children's phonemic awareness.

Adams, M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). "The Elusive Phoneme." American Educator, Spring/Summer, pp. 18–22. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.

This article addresses why phonemic awareness is so important and describes effective strategies for helping children develop it.

Chall, J. S., & Popp, H. M. (1996). Teaching and Assessing Phonics: Why, What, When, How. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.

This practical resource features research-based information about how to implement effective phonics instruction in a balanced reading program.

Moats, L. C. (1995). Spelling: Development, Disabilities, and Instruction. Baltimore, MD: York Press.

This book presents a research-based discussion of children's spelling development and describes essential components and characteristics of effective spelling instruction.

Moats, L. C. (1998). "Teaching Decoding." American Educator, Spring/Summer, pp. 42–50. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.

This article focuses on the critical role decoding plays in the reading process and provides research-based rationales for and descriptions of decoding instruction that is aligned with the stages of reading development and the structure of the English language and that is taught in the way children learn most easily–explicitly and systematically.

Moats, L. C. (2000). Speech to Print. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.

This book clarifies why effective literacy instruction requires an understanding of language. It provides a theoretical overview of the structures of spoken and written English and applies research on language and reading development and effective literacy instruction to make recommendations for the classroom. The book includes case studies illustrating literacy development and practical resources useful for supporting research-based instruction in the classroom.

Moats, L. C. (2003). Letrs: Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling. Module 1. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

This resource provides teachers with an overview of language structure to support their instruction and promotion of literacy in the classroom, specifically with respect to oral language development, phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, word analysis, spelling, vocabulary, reading fluency, comprehension, and writing.

Rasinski, T., & Padak, N. (2001). From Phonics to Fluency: Effective Teaching of Decoding and Fluency in the Elementary School. NY: Addison Wesley Longman.

This book is a research-based practical guide to teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, and word reading and for promoting fluency among students at the elementary level.

Snider, V. E. (1995). "A Primer on Phonemic Awareness: What It Is, Why It's Important, and How to Teach It." School Psychology Review, 24;3. pp. 1–15.

This article describes phonemic awareness, summarizing the research regarding its role in successful reading and the importance of teaching it directly and systematically to address the needs of at-risk students. The article includes a scope and sequence for teaching phonemic awareness.

Domain 3: Fluency

Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). "Fluency: A Review of Developmental and Remedial Practices." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 95, No. 1, pp. 3–21. American Psychological Association, Inc.

This comprehensive article reviews both theory and research related to fluency development and instruction in fluency, including what approaches have proven to be effective or less effective in improving the fluency of struggling readers. The article addresses research and instructional implications related to all the key indicators of fluency.

Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E. H. (2003). A Focus on Fluency. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL).

This booklet takes a comprehensive look at the role of fluency in successful reading development and explores the advantages and limitations of various instructional approaches to teaching fluency. The authors address research and instructional implications related to all the key indicators of fluency.

Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). "Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension." The Reading Teacher, 58(6), pp. 510–519. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This article touches on important research contributing to the developing concept of fluency and presents a rationale for and a description of a research-based instructional program in fluency.

Rasinski, T., Blachowicz, C., & Lems, K. (Eds.). (2006). Fluency Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices. NY: The Guilford Press.

This collection of articles by reading researchers provides an overview of fluency theory and research, "best programs" and best practices in fluency instruction, and research-based fluency instruction for diverse students and emergent and beginning readers.

Samuels, S. J., & Farstrup, A. E. (Eds.). (2006) What Research Has to Say About Fluency Instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This collection of articles presents a history of fluency theory and discussions of fluency research on a variety of topics, including the development of fluency in readers, factors that affect reading fluency, fluency assessment, and supporting the fluency development of struggling readers and English Learners.

Domain 4: Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2008). Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions and Extended Examples. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy. NY: The Guilford Press.

This book is a practical guide to teaching vocabulary at different grade levels (K–12), with discussions of effective instruction and practice, recommendations for instructional sequences, assessments for different grade levels, and lesson-planning tools.

Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2004). "Vocabulary Lessons: Research Points to Four Practices That Teachers Can Use to Expand Students' Vocabularies and Improve Their Reading." Educational Leadership. March 2004, pp. 66–69. ASCD.

This article presents an overview of research on vocabulary instruction and identifies research-based practices for promoting students' vocabulary development (promoting word awareness, using "explicit, rich instruction," building independent word-learning strategies, promoting wide reading).

Graves, M. (2005). The Vocabulary Book: Learning & Instruction. NY: Teachers College Press.

This book details a comprehensive research-based plan for vocabulary instruction for all students in grades K–12. The plan emphasizes four strategies for promoting vocabulary development: providing rich and varied language experiences, teaching particular words, teaching word-learning strategies, and fostering word consciousness.

Hirsch, E., Jr. (2006). "Building Knowledge: The Case for Bringing Content into the Language Arts Block and for a Knowledge-Rich Curriculum Core for All Children." American Educator, Spring 2006. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.

This article clarifies the critical interrelationships between vocabulary, academic language, background knowledge, and comprehension and explains why research has shown that teaching comprehension strategies alone is not effective in improving the comprehension of students who have limited background knowledge and language experiences. It includes strategies for providing students with the conceptual and language foundation they need to become competent readers.

Juel, C., & Deffes, R. (2004). "Making Words Stick." Educational Leadership, March 2004, pp. 30–34. ASCD.

This article focuses on "word poverty" and the importance of early vocabulary development for later reading achievement. It describes strategies for anchoring new words in multiple contexts for younger students, including connecting vocabulary words to texts, to other words, and to some concrete orthographic features within the words.

King, D. H. (2000). English Isn't Crazy: The Elements of Our Language and How to Teach Them. Timonium, MD: York Press.

This booklet traces the English language from its origins to the complex and extensive vocabulary we use today. It includes exercises and methodologies for integrating the teaching of word origins into a program of reading instruction.

Lehr, F., Osborn, J., & Hiebert, E. H. (2004). A Focus on Vocabulary. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL).

This article takes a comprehensive look at the important contribution of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension and describes components of research-based vocabulary instruction, including explicit instruction in both words and word-learning strategies.

Menyuk, P. (1999). Reading and Linguistic Development. From Reading Research to Practice, Vol. 4, Series Ed. Jeanne S. Chall. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

This accessible book reviews research on language development, including that of children from varying cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Explores the connection between oral language and reading and offers educational activities to support and enrich students' language development.

Nagy, W. E. (1988). Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Reading Comprehension. Urbana, IL, and Newark, DE: National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association, Inc.

This booklet describes the characteristics of effective vocabulary teaching and recommends many instructional activities for teaching word meanings.

Pearson, P. D., Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (2007). "Vocabulary Assessment: What We Know and What We Need to Learn." Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 42(2). Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This article discusses reading research and theoretical issues related to vocabulary assessment, including an examination of what is measured by particular vocabulary assessments, what vocabulary assessments could potentially measure, and an agenda for future research.

Richek, M. A. (2005). "Words Are Wonderful: Interactive, Time Efficient Strategies to Teach Meaning Vocabulary." The Reading Teacher, Vol. 58(5), pp. 414–423. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This article discusses six specific strategies and techniques for introducing new words and for providing practice and review of words already taught.

Shostak, J. (2001). The Value of Direct and Systematic Vocabulary Instruction. Sadlier-Oxford Professional Development Series, Vol. 7. NY: William H. Sadlier, Inc.

This booklet presents research related to vocabulary development and instruction in support of the view that direct, systematic vocabulary instruction is necessary to support reading comprehension and explains in practical terms research-based strategies for supporting vocabulary growth.

Stahl, S. A. (1999). Vocabulary Development. From Reading Research to Practice, Vol. 2, Series Ed. Jeanne S. Chall. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

This book presents various views on relationships between vocabulary and reading comprehension and suggests teaching practices for vocabulary development that have been most effective in classrooms.

Stahl, S. A., & Shiel, T. G. (1992). "Teaching Meaning Vocabulary: Productive Approaches for Poor Readers." Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, Vol. 8, pp. 223–241. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

This article discusses the importance of using approaches to vocabulary instruction, particularly with struggling readers, that go beyond teaching the meanings of specific words. The authors describe three productive approaches: teaching contextual strategies for learning the meaning of words; teaching word roots, prefixes, and suffixes; and teaching semantically related words together.

Domain 5: Comprehension

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2006). Improving Comprehension with Questioning the Author: A Fresh and Expanded View of a Powerful Approach. Theory and Practice. NY: Scholastic.

This book explains the Questioning the Author approach to reading comprehension, as well as providing a practical guide to implementing the approach in classrooms in grades 3 through 8.

Block, C. C., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (2002). Comprehension Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices. NY: The Guilford Press.

This text presents best practices in reading comprehension divided into four parts: new directions in teaching comprehension, research that is expanding current understanding of reading comprehension, current nature and potential for comprehension instruction K–12, and summaries of common themes and recommendations. Included are bibliographical references and an index.

Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). "Effective Practices for Developing Reading Comprehension." In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.) What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction. (pp. 205–242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This chapter in What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction (previously cited in the section "Resources That Address Multiple RICA Domains") identifies key characteristics of effective comprehension programs and describes effective individual and group strategies for teaching comprehension.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2007). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Boston: Allyn & Bacon Pearson.

This book provides a discussion of the sheltered-instruction model and identifies features of an effective sheltered content-area lesson, including strategies for supporting English Learners' comprehension of content-area texts.

Fielding, L. G., & Pearson, P. D. (1994). "Synthesis of Research: Reading Comprehension–What Works." Educational Leadership, Vol. 50(5). ASCD.

This resource reviews research on comprehension instruction and provides a practical guide for applying research findings in the classroom.

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